In the minds of reform- ers of that era, a liberated sexuality would catapult the working class out of poverty. Advocates of divergent aims-such as individualization of birth control choices, improvement in the living standards of and liberation of un- derprivileged groups, and state enforcement of "racial hygiene ' pro- grams--could all successfully invoke science and the value of scientific- mindedness. As with other instances of colonization Osterhammel I [I]: Treading a fine line between collusion with and distance from government institutions, Japanese sexologists countered repressive state measures with arguments based on public health and population policy. These battles were driven by a historically specific, multifold rhetoric that consisted of cries for defense and security and for liberation and truth, thus emphasizing in every historical moment how the sexual body has been and is part of a much broader current in po-litical and cultural life. Very few of thenl imagined sexual liberation as a component or consequence of revolution; most insisted that its central tool was sex- ual knowledge based on scientific facts, or simply the truth about sex. Closely connected to the colonialist strategies I examine are the prac- tices of medicalization and pedagogization that depicted the individual body as a miniature of the social, the national, and the imperial body. Self-appointed experts from the academic fields of zoology, biology, and medicine, as well as from education and the arts, attempted to create a new science of sex seikagaku or seigaku. They pre- sented themselves as defenders of scientific freedom when criticizing censorship of their publications and as progressive reformers when they railed against the unscientific, superstitious nature of traditional prac- tices and those promoted by the new religions i. The Japanese sexologists of the S stuck to the older generations' rhetoric of lib- eration, as I will demonstrate in chapter 5 and the epilogue. The Army of the Future. Laurie Monahan has helped me see images, including those in this book, in new ways. Originally trained as a zo- ologist at the Imperial University of Tokyo, Yamamoto began to lecture publicly on human sexual development and practice. This normative sexuality was declared vital to the health, improve- ment, and future of the Japanese empire. Their attempts to propagate sex educa- tion were supported by representatives of the anti-prostitution move- ment.